Thursday, July 3, 2014

Apple (Malus domestica) सेब

Apple (Malus domestica) सेब

                                  Apples are often eaten raw. The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales. Preliminary research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Apple peels contain ursolic acid which, in rat studies, increases skeletal muscle and brown fat, and decreases white fat, obesity, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver disease. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and contains 126 calories with significant dietary fiber and vitamin C content.
Apple peels are a source of various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value and possible antioxidant activity in vitro. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.
Apple juice concentrate has been found in mice to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice. Fruit flies fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies fed a normal diet.



Apples (Raw) Nutritional Values


Carbohydrate Factor: 3.6 Fat Factor: 8.37 Protein Factor: 3.36 Nitrogen to Protein Conversion Factor: 6.25


Refuse: 10%  Core and stem and 13% skin

Nutrient (Proximates)
Unit
With Skin
Without Skin

1Value per100g

Water
g
85.56
86.67

Energy
kcal
52
48

Protein
g
0.26
0.27

Total lipid (fat)
g
0.17
0.13

Ash
g
0.19
0.17

Carbohydrate, by difference
g
13.81
12.76

Fiber, total dietary
g
2.4
1.3

Sugars, total
g
10.39
10.1

Sucrose
g
2.07
0.82

Glucose (dextrose)
g
2.43
3.25

Fructose
g
5.9
6.03

Starch
g
0.05


Minerals




Calcium, Ca
mg
6
5

Iron, Fe
mg
0.12
0.07

Magnesium, Mg
mg
5
4

Phosphorus, P
mg
11
11

Potassium, K
mg
107
90

Sodium, Na
mg
1
0

Zinc, Zn
mg
0.04
0.05

Copper, Cu
mg
0.027
0.031

Manganese, Mn
mg
0.035
0.038

Selenium, Se
µg
0
0

Fluoride, F
µg
3.3


Vitamins




Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid
mg
4.6
4

Thiamin
mg
0.017
0.019

Riboflavin
mg
0.026
0.028

Niacin
mg
0.091
0.091

Pantothenic acid
mg
0.061
0.071

Vitamin B-6
mg
0.041
0.037

Folate, total
µg
3
0

Folic acid
µg
0
0

Folate, food
µg
3
0

Folate, DFE
µg
3
0

Choline, total
mg
3.4
3.4

Betaine
mg
0.1


Vitamin A, RAE
µg
3
2

Carotene, beta
µg
27
17

Cryptoxanthin, beta
µg
11
13

Vitamin A, IU
IU
54
38

Lutein + zeaxanthin
µg
29
18

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
mg
0.18
0.05

Tocopherol, beta
mg

0.01

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
µg
2.2
0.6

Lipids




Fatty acids, total saturated
g
0.028
0.021

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated
g
0.007
0.005

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated
g
0.051
0.037

Cholesterol
mg
0
0

Phytosterols
mg
12


Amino Acids




Tryptophan
g
0.001
0.001

Threonine
g
0.006
0.006

Isoleucine
g
0.006
0.006

Leucine
g
0.013
0.014

Lysine
g
0.012
0.013

Methionine
g
0.001
0.001

Cystine
g
0.001
0.001

Phenylalanine
g
0.006
0.007

Tyrosine
g
0.001
0.001

Valine
g
0.012
0.012

Arginine
g
0.006
0.006

Histidine
g
0.005
0.005

Alanine
g
0.011
0.012

Aspartic acid
g
0.07
0.074

Glutamic acid
g
0.025
0.026

Glycine
g
0.009
0.009

Proline
g
0.006
0.006

Serine
g
0.01
0.011


                 The whole fruit including the skin is suitable for human consumption except for the seeds, which may affect some consumers. One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen. Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Reactions, which entail oral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat.