Monday, October 7, 2013

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) बथुआ

Quinoa
It is a pseudo cereal rather than a true cereal, or grain, as it is not a member of the true grass family. As a chenopod, quinoa is closely related to species such as beetroots, spinach and tumbleweeds.

The popularity of quinoa in non-indigenous regions has raised concerns over food security. Due to continued widespread poverty in regions where quinoa is produced, and because few other crops are compatible with the soil and climate in these regions, it is suggested that the inflated price of quinoa disrupts local access to food supplies.





International Year of Quinoa

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2013 as the "International Year of Quinoa" in recognition of ancestral practices of the Andean people, who have preserved quinoa as food for present and future generations, through knowledge and practices of living in harmony with nature. The objective is to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa plays in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication, in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals.

Quinoa was important to the diet of pre-Columbian Andean civilizations. Today, people appreciate quinoa for its nutritional value. Quinoa has been called a superfood. Protein content is very high for a cereal/pseudo-cereal (14% by mass), yet not as high as most beans and legumes. Quinoa's protein content per 100 calories is higher than brown rice, potatoes, barley and millet, but is less than wild rice and oats. Nutritional evaluations of quinoa indicate that it is a source of complete protein. Furthermore, it is a good source of dietary fiber and phosphorus and is high in magnesium and iron. Quinoa is also a source of calcium, and thus is useful for vegans and those who are lactose intolerant. Quinoa is gluten-free and considered easy to digest. Because of all these characteristics, quinoa is being considered a possible crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied spaceflights.

Nutritional value
Quinoa, uncooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy
1,539 kJ (368 kcal)
Carbohydrates
64 g
- Starch
52 g
- Dietary fibre
7 g
Fat
6 g
- polyunsaturated
3.3 g
Protein
14 g
- Tryptophan
0.167 g
- Threonine
0.421 g
- Isoleucine
0.504 g
- Leucine
0.840 g
- Lysine
0.766 g
- Methionine
0.309 g
- Cystine
0.203 g
- Phenylalanine
0.593 g
- Tyrosine
0.267 g
- Valine
0.594 g
- Arginine
1.091 g
- Histidine
0.407 g
- Alanine
0.588 g
- Aspartic acid
1.134 g
- Glutamic acid
1.865 g
- Glycine
0.694 g
- Proline
0.773 g
- Serine
0.567 g
Water
13 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)
0.36 mg (31%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)
0.32 mg (27%)
Vitamin B6
0.5 mg (38%)
Folate (vit. B9)
184 μg (46%)
Calcium
36 mg (4%)
Iron
4.6 mg (35%)
Magnesium
197 mg (55%)
Phosphorus
457 mg (65%)
Potassium
563 mg (12%)
Zinc
3.1 mg (33%)
Source: USDA Nutrient Database